_习语翻译讲义

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Unit 15 Comparison and Translation of Idioms Category of English Idioms Set phrases 成语 Proverbs 谚语 Sayings 格言Colloquialisms 俗语Allusions 典故Slangs 俚语Enigmatic folk similes 歇后语 Culture specific: depend very much upon a specific social or ecological setting. Finding satisfactory equivalents for idioms is one of the most difficult aspects of translating. In many cases idioms can only be satisfactorily rendered by non-idioms in a target language Note: east wind cold war冷战; round-table conference圆桌会议; armed to the teeth武装到牙齿; 武术martial arts 纸老虎paper tiger 丢面子lose one’s face 无可救药beyond cure 竹篮打水一场空drawing water in a bamboo basket 2) Substitution Walls have ears隔墙有耳 Once bit, twice shy.一朝被蛇咬,十年怕井绳 Use a sledge hammer to crack a nut.杀鸡用牛刀 Teach one’s grandmother how to suck eggs.班门弄斧 You can’t make an omelet without breaking eggs.巧妇难为无米之炊 坐如针毡to sit on thorns 海底捞月to fish in the air 入乡随俗When in Rome do as the Romans do. 猫哭耗子假慈悲 to shed crocodile tears 3) Liberal translation a wet blanket令人扫兴的 to break the ice打破沉默to face the music勇敢地面对困难 to be the cat’s paws上当,被人利用like a fish out of water很不自在 杞人忧天unnecessary anxiety 落花流水to be shattered to pieces 司马昭之心,路人皆知The villain’s design is obvious 东施效颦Blindly copying others and making oneself look foolish 做贼心虚He that has a great nose thinks everybody is speaking of it. 4) Explanation with notes The man who carries coal to Newcastle will pour water on a drowned mouse. 运煤到纽卡索去的人好比往淹死的老鼠身上泼水----多此一举。

Ø Note:纽卡索-----英国著名产煤区 All are not maidens that wear bare hair. 不戴帽子的未必都是少女。

Ø Note: 西方风俗中成年妇女一般都戴帽子,而少女则一般不戴,该习语告诫人们看事物不能光看外表。

After-class rcises Plain sailing一帆风顺 At one’s wit’s end智穷才尽 The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak.心有余而力不足 Silken tongue巧舌如簧 A lion in the way拦路虎 A flash in the pan昙花一现 As red as rose; like lilies and roses艳若桃李 New brooms sweep clean.新官上任三把火 There is a skeleton in the cupboard.家家有本难念的经 十年树木,百年树人。It takes ten years to grow trees, but a hundred to rear people. 江山易改,本性难移The wolf changes his coat, but not his disposition. 好事不出门,坏事传千里A good reputation sits still; a bad one runs about. 路遥知马力,日久见人心A distance tests a horse’s strength, so time reveals a person’s heart. 耳听为虚,眼见为实Seeing is believing. 习语、对偶 四字词组的翻译 多见于古代的诗词、骈文、辞赋。精炼、简明、优美,堪称语言之杰作,可增加语言美感和表现力。

汉语成语多由四字组成,来源大抵有三类:一是来自文史古籍、神话寓言;
二是来自俗语、谚语、歌谣和民间文学;
三是来自外族语言或佛教。

翻译时不仅要译出成语本意,还要译出其文化含义或隐含意义。绝非易事!

英译汉中,适当使用四字句,译文将文采一新。

I could not dance in fetters.(by an English poet in19th century) 击链而舞,非吾所能。( 钱钟书) “Living history” by Hillary Clinton Then I said goodbye to the house where I had spent eight years living history. 亲历历史 She has beauty still, and , if it be not in its heyday, it is not yet in its autumn. 她依然很美,如果不是风华正茂,也远非迟暮之年。

Structure of the four-letter words 四字词组通常分为前后两部分。两部分的语法关系可以是:
主谓:
祸不单行 Misery loves company. 债台高筑Be up to ears in debt. 暗箭伤人A stab in the back. 好事多磨All good things have unexpected setbacks. 动宾词组:
走漏风声Spil

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