lecture,8,Semantic,features,and,Componential,analysisppt课件.ppt

来源:教学反思 发布时间:2020-03-02 21:17:21 点击:
Lecture7SemanticFeatures Componentialanalysis 1 ConceptualMeaning sometimescalled denotative or cognitive meaning iswidelyassumedtobethecentralfactorinlinguisticcommunication ConceptualMeaning 2 Thephoneticsymbol b maybeexplicatedbyabundleofdistinctivefeatures bilabial voice stop nasal 3 Inasimilarway theconceptualmeaningsofalanguagecanbestudiedintermsofdistinctivefeatures sothatthemeaningoftheword woman couldbespecifiedas human male adult asdistinctfrom say boy whichcouldbe defined Human male adult 4 Semanticfeatures meta languageslanguageuniversalbinaryopposition distinctivefeatures Characteristics 5 Vs 1 dynamicverbs dynamic a activityverbsabandon ask call play work writeb processverbschange grow mature widenc verbsofbodilysensationache feel hart itchd transitionaleventverbarrive die fall land leave losee momentaryverbs2 stativeverbs dynamic a verbsofinertperceptionadore astonish believe desire detest feel hateb relationalverbs be concern contain deserveR Quirk GrammarofcontemporaryEnglish 6 Todistinguishdifferentnouns Animate todifferentiate man dog sparrow from book chair dictionary Vegetable todistinguishplants Male and Adult toberelevantfornounswith Animate Concrete totellnounslike boy table from hope thought 7 Grammaticalclassesthemselvescanbetreatedasfeaturesofmeaning IfwenoteSmithisabiggerquackthanJonescanmeanthatSmithismoreofquack whileSmithisabiggerheadshrinkerthanJonescanreferonlytoSmith ssizeorimportance wecansaythatquack belongstotheclassofintensifiablewords or hasthefeature Intensifiable andheadshrinkerhasthefeature Intensifiable Itisacommonpracticetoadoptthesegrammaticalfeaturesastheonesthatarestatedfirstandthenaddtherest 8 Someexampleswillshowthegreatvarietyoffeaturesthatwebuildintothewordsthatsegmentnatureinallitsvariety 9 1 somesuchfeatureas entity initsownrightisneededtodistinguishdiseasefromillnessandailment Diseasesareclassifiedlabeled andadiseasecanbe caught wedonotordinarilysaycatchanillnessorcatchanailment 10 Inthesetfall topple collapse wehavewhatappearstobe intentionality Lackinganyindicationtothecontrary wewouldassumethatJanefellmeantthatithappenedwithoutherintendingit Yetthisfeatureisnotpermanentlystucktofall thoughitistothetwootherverbs wecansayShefellonpurposebutnotShetoppledonpurpose Toppleiscompletelyunintentional fallisjustmostlyso 11 Featuresareusefulforanalysisonlyiftheyareshared themorewidelythebetter Atleastsomeoftheonesjustciteddoappearinotherwords Thefeature goal forinstance iswhatdistinguishesarriveandreachfromleaveanddepart ItalsodistinguishesIwenthomefromIheadedhomeandIcontributeditfromIofferedit belongingness isnecessaryforsteal borrow propertybequeath andtrespass 12 Thefeaturecomposites Human Young Male havetobeusedtoanalyzeagreatmanywordsandaccordinglyhaveaclaimtobeingthekindofirreduciblecomponentthatonehopestofind Semanticula featurecomposites 13 Common Count Concrete Human Adult Male Married spinster老姑娘 Animate Mammal Plant eating Heavy Thick skinned Short legged Hippopotamus河马 14 Thesemanticfeaturesofnouns common concrete human adult male count 15 Sodogmighthavethedisplay 16 Levelsofsemanticfeatures Thehighestlevel distinguishword classThelowestlevel distinguishonewordfromanothere g male distinguishmanandwoman polar distinguishlongandshort 17 ComponentialAnalysis Theanalysisofwordmeaningisoftenseenasaprocessofbreakingdowntheconceptualmeaningofawordintoitsminimalcomponents whichareknownasbinarydistinctivefeatures 18 ComponentialAnalysis Wecanusethreesemanticfeaturestodefinefourwords Man human adult male Woman human adult male Boy Girl 19 SemanticFeatures Assignment Inmakingcomponentialanalysis itisimportanttofocusonthedefiningfeatures i e featureswhichcandistinguishonewordfromanother horse cat machine chairroad house thought philosophywater gas stone treesit cry read give 20 AdvantagesofCA CAcanhelpuschoosetherightwordincollocation e g Amonth anhourelapsed Time Abike apersonelapsed Time CAcaneffectivelydistinguishtwosynonyms CAcanhelpusseeclearlydifferentsenserelations Forexample iftwowordssharethesamesemanticfeatures theyaresynonyms CAcanhelpusbuildasemanticfield whichisusefulincoherenceindiscourseanalysis 21 DisadvantagesofCA 1 Theyarenotfiniteanddiscrete 2 Thescopeofexplanation Wecannotfindasetoffeaturesthatcapturewhatiscommoninmeaningforallwords Itdoesnotincludeothertypesofmeanings Forexample Beaman HerewecannotuseCAtoexplaintheword man e g thefigurativeusageofsomewords threatenrequiresananimateobject foronecanonlythreatensomethinganimate threatenone senemythreatensomeone ssecurity dichotomy 22 以颜色为例 颜色是人目视觉的基本特征之一 不同波长的可见光引起人目不同的颜色感觉 大致可划分如下 红7 700 6 220 橙6 220 5 970 黄5 970 5 770 绿5 770 4 920 蓝 靛4 920 4 550 紫4 550 3 900 red 23 从以上的划分可以看出各色之间是连续变化的 在颜色的连续体中我们很难找到一个点使红和橙 橙和黄 黄和绿 绿和蓝以及蓝和紫截然分开 如果在红与橙之间再划分桃红 粉红 铁锈红 紫红 绯红 砖红 水红 朱红 栗红 猩红 胭脂红 洋红就更难以 非A即B 的排中律对色彩进行定性 语义的模糊性是对客观世界的模糊性的再现 24 一种观点认为 语义的模糊性关系到主体对对象类属边界 性态的把握 其测度与主体密切相关 因而是主观的 25 E g thewordbaldis lackinganaturalorusualcoveringasofhair vegetation etc Webster sNewCollegiateDictionary 但问题是如何去量化 bald

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